We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in p↑+p collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of 5 standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities η>0.5, and for pair masses around the mass of the ρ meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p+p collisions.
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This work was supported in part by the Office of Nuclear Physics within the U.S. DOE Office of Science, the U.S. NSF, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, NNSFC, CAS, MoST, and MoE of China, the Korean Research Foundation, GA and MSMT of the Czech Republic, FIAS of Germany, DAE, DST, and UGC of India, the National Science Centre of Poland, National Research Foundation, the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia, and RosAtom of Russia.
Adkins, James K.; Fatemi, Renee H.; Ramachandran, Suvarna; Adamczyk, L.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; and Averichev, G. S., "Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in p↑+p at √s=200 GeV" (2015). Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications. 378.