The paper proposes a generalized energy storage (GES) model for battery energy storage systems (BESS), electric water heaters (EWH) and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to enable demand response control complying to Energy Star and CTA-2045 standards. The demand response control has been implemented in the DER integration testbed, which was originally developed by EPRI, to demonstrate that the “energy content” and “energy take” for BESS and EWH with mixing valve technology are comparable for typical residential ratings. A distribution power system was modeled using the modified IEEE 123-bus feeder system, measured residential loads, and EWH power simulated based on realistic hot water draws from CBECC-Res software. The demand response control, which complies to CTA-2045 standards was implemented to the EWHs considering the energy take values. Results demonstrate that the EWHs can be controlled to postpone the peak power at the distribution system level and provide a large amount of energy storage, while maintaining system robustness. The impact on occupant comfort was also analyzed.

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Gong, H., Jones, E. S., Jakaria, A H M., Huque, A., Renjit, A., and Ionel, D. M., "Large-Scale Modeling and DR Control of Electric Water Heaters With Energy Star and CTA-2045 Control Types in Distribution Power Systems," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 58, No. 4, doi: 10.1109/TIA.2022.3178066, pp. 5136-5147 (2022)

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