Electric power systems are experiencing a growing number of electronic loads in the residential sector as modern appliance technology progresses, and it has become increasingly more important to consider the total power factor (PF) of residential communities. This paper provides a survey based on literature and publicly available information of typical appliance PF values and effects at the residential level as well as a discussion on appliance energy use and corresponding operation schedules. A procedure for the calculation of equivalent PF is proposed and exemplified with minutely experimental data at 15-minute and hourly time intervals, which correspond to smart metering and traditional practices, respectively. The application of the proposed equivalent PF procedure in coordination with building energy modeling, may, in principle, be employed to determine PF for entire communities at an aggregated level. The paper includes a proposal to simulate reactive power through an approach that utilizes EnergyPlus, a building energy modeling software. Such simulation capability could facilitate improved planning for compensation implementation both in electric power distribution networks and in individual residences, which offers significant opportunity for energy savings.
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The support of the Department of Energy sponsored project DE-EE0009021 led by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is gratefully acknowledged. The support received by Mr. Evan S. Jones through a Department of Education GAANN Fellowship is also gratefully acknowledged.
Anderson, Hope C.; Al Hadi, Abdullah; Jones, Evan S.; and Ionel, Dan M., "Power Factor and Reactive Power in US Residences – Survey and EnergyPlus Modeling" (2021). Power and Energy Institute of Kentucky Faculty Publications. 73.