A Guideline for the Inpatient Care of Children with Pyelonephritis


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Febrile urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis are common in children and frequently lead to hospitalization for management, especially in the child who appears toxic. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) practice parameter on the diagnosis, treatment and evaluation of the initial urinary tract infection in febrile infants and young children provides experience and evidence-based guidelines for the practitioner caring for children between the ages of 2 months to 2 years. No established guideline exists for older children and the AAP guideline does not specifically focus on inpatient care.

METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive review of recently published literature and practice guidelines to develop a consensus on the inpatient diagnosis and management of children with pyelonephritis.

RESULTS: Eight recommendations are proposed for the diagnosis and management, including revised guidelines for the imaging studies postpyelonephritis on the basis of current best evidence.

CONCLUSION: Proper diagnosis of pyelonephritis, timely initiation of appropriate therapy and identification of children at risk for renal injury will help to reduce immediate as well as long-term complications due to chronic kidney disease.

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Published in Annals of Saudi Medicine, v. 30, issue 5, p. 341–349.

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