Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the quality and quantity of newly generated bone in the maxillary sinus grafted with stem cell-based allograft material.

Methods: This study was a single site, prospective, blinded, randomized, and controlled clinical trial. Eleven subjects with 18 edentulous posterior maxillary sites requiring sinus augmentation for delayed implant placement using a lateral window approach were enrolled. At the time of sinus augmentation, test sinus was grafted with stem cell-based allograft (Osteocel Plus; NuVasive Therapeutics), while the control sinus was grafted with conventional cortico-cancellous allograft (alloOss; ACE Surgical). Cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) scan was taken before and 14 weeks post-sinus augmentation procedure, i.e., 2 weeks before implant placement. Thirty-six trephined core bone biopsies were harvested from the anterior and posterior grafted lateral-window osteotomy sites at the time of implant placement.

Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference in the vital bone percentage between the test and the control groups at the posterior grafted sites (p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in the percentage of vital bone between the anterior and posterior grafted sites within the test and control groups (p > .05). The CBCT analysis showed that the maxillary sinuses at the posterior grafted sites were statistically wider than those at the anterior grafted sites in both groups (p < .05).

Conclusions: Different allograft bone materials can be used in the maxillary sinus augmentation procedures. Stem cell allograft has more osteogenic potential with a better outcome in the wide posterior sinus.

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Notes/Citation Information

Published in International Journal of Implant Dentistry, v. 6, article no. 25, p. 1-10.

© The Author(s). 2020

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Funding Information 

Project was partially supported by ICOI IDREF Grant # 3048113648.

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Additional file 1. Diagram1. Correlation between sinus width and gender.

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Additional file 2. Diagram 2. Correlation between sinus width and age.

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Additional file 3. Diagram 3. Correlation between vital bone and gender.

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Additional file 4. Diagram 4.Correlation between vital bone and age.