Author ORCID Identifier

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1882-1419

Year of Publication

2019

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

College

Nursing

Department

Nursing

First Advisor

Dr. Terry A. Lennie

Abstract

Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability world-wide and affects over 800,000 people per year in the United States. The majority of these strokes are ischemic due to a blockage of blood flow to the brain. Damage to the brain occurs at the onset of stroke, neuronal cell death is irreversible and therefore, quick treatment to remove blockage is critical factor in the recovery from stroke. Mechanical thrombectomy as a treatment for ischemic stroke provides an ideal opportunity to collect blood distal and proximal to the cerebral thrombus to examine neurochemical changes occurring during stroke.

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the trajectory of neurochemical changes that occur in response to ischemic stroke during the first 72 hours and the physiological response from stroke patients to improve stroke outcomes. The specific aims were to: 1) to determine whether venous blood gases predict infarct volume and/or mortality in acute ischemic stroke in young male rats; 2) determine whether venous blood gases predict infarct and edema volume, and/or mortality in acute ischemic stroke in aged male and female rats; 3) compare the presence and relative concentrations of acid/base and electrolytes in static blood distal to thrombus and in peripheral blood drawn from adults who received thrombectomy for ischemic stroke and identify associations to postreperfusion functional outcomes.

Specific Aim One was addressed by evaluation of young (three-month old) Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent permanent or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Pre- and post-MCAO venous samples from permanent and transient models provided pH, carbon dioxide, oxygen, bicarbonate, glucose, hematocrit, hematocrit, and electrolyte values of ionized calcium, potassium and sodium. The analyses indicated that mean differences in the blood gas and electrolytes between pre- to post-MCAO and pH and iCa2+ were predictors of infarct volume in the permanent MCAO model. The second aim was addressed by evaluation of aged (18 month old) male and female rats pre-MCAO, post-MCAO, and at 72 hours of permanent MCAO venous blood gas samples (pH, carbon dioxide, oxygen, bicarbonate, glucose, hematocrit, hematocrit, and electrolyte concentrations of ionized calcium, potassium and sodium). Changes in pH (from pre-MCAO to post-MACO and post-MCAO to 72 hours) and changes in Na+ and iCa2+ (from post-MCAO to 72 hours) were predictors of infarct volume and edema volume, respectively in both sexes. Cox regression revealed there was a 3.25 times increased risk for mortality based on changes (cut-off range within -2.00 to - 7.00) in bicarbonate levels (pre- to post-MCAO). The third aim was addressed by evaluation of acid/base balance (pH, carbon dioxide, oxygen, bicarbonate, ionized calcium, potassium and sodium) of ischemic stroke patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy. Our results suggests sex differences matter in ischemic stroke populations. Significant differences occur within proximal blood between the sexes. Additionally, females had approximately 2.5 hour increased time between stroke symptom onset to thrombectomy completion time (described as infarct time). Changes in bicarbonate and base deficit were predictors of infarct time, but only in our female population.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

https://doi.org/10.13023/etd.2019.185

Available for download on Thursday, May 13, 2021

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