Year of Publication

2015

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

College

Nursing

Department

Nursing

First Advisor

Dr. Susan K. Frazier

Abstract

The purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate outcomes associated with blood component (BC) transfusion in adult trauma patients. Specific aims were to: 1) explore the relationship between traumatic injury, hemorrhage, and BC transfusion, focusing on consequences of the component storage lesion through presentation of a conceptual model; 2) systematically review research literature comparing outcomes of massively transfused major trauma patients based on ratios of BCs received; 3) evaluating the relationship between type of blood transfusion trauma patients received (whole blood versus BCs) and mortality likelihood after controlling for demographic and clinical variables; 4) evaluating the relationship between volume and ratio of BCs transfused to trauma patients and development of inflammatory complications (ICs) after controlling for demographic and clinical variables.

Specific aim one was addressed through the development of a conceptual model, depicting the current state of knowledge regarding the storage lesion, and short-/long-term outcomes of traumatic injury, hemorrhage, and blood transfusion. The second specific aim was addressed through a systematic review of studies that grouped critically injured, massively transfused patients based on ratios of BCs they received, and compared clinical outcomes among groups. Findings from this analysis revealed increased survival likelihood with massive transfusion of BCs in a 1:1:1 (packed red blood cells [PRBCs], fresh frozen plasma [FFP], platelets [PLTs]) fashion. The third specific aim involved a secondary analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank to evaluate the relationship between type of transfusion trauma patients received (whole blood versus BCs) and mortality. Patients who received BCs experienced a higher mortality likelihood compared with those who received whole blood. The fourth specific aim was addressed through a secondary analysis of the Inflammation and Host Response to Injury Trauma-Related Data Base, to evaluate the relationship between volume and ratio of BCs transfused and development of ICs in patients with major trauma. Findings revealed that total transfused volume of PRBCs, injury severity, and comorbidities were associated with development of ICs. There were no differences in time to complication between PRBCs:FFP or PRBCs:PLTs ratio groups.

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