MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs for degradation or translational repression. MiRNAs can be expressed tissue specifically and are altered in response to various physiological conditions. It has recently been shown that miRNAs are released into the circulation, potentially for the purpose of communicating with distant tissues. This manuscript discusses miRNA alterations in cardiac muscle and the circulation during heart failure, a prevalent and costly public health issue. A potential mechanism for how skeletal muscle maladaptations during heart failure could be mediated by myocardium-derived miRNAs released to the circulation is presented. An overview of miRNA alterations in skeletal muscle during the ubiquitous process of aging and perspectives on miRNA interactions during heart failure are also provided.

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Published in Heart Failure Reviews, v. 22, issue 2, p. 209-218.

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

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This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Heart Failure Reviews. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10741-016-9572-5.

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This publication was supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number AR061939 to J.J.M.