Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Engineering (ME)

Document Type

Master's Thesis




Manufacturing Systems Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. M. Abbot Maginnis


The Toyota Production System (TPS), also known as Lean Manufacturing (LM), was founded in the automotive industry and has contributed to Toyota’s decades of success. This has brought much attention to TPS and how this system may be implemented in other industries. Focusing on the TPS foundational element of standardization, this study examines the impact of target cycle time (TCT) on process fluctuation in a fast-food environment. In order to observe the effects of TCT, team members within 3 production lines were timed. Times were measured before and after the addition of a TCT to the Standardized Work (STW) in place. It was found that fluctuation was reduced by an overall average of 9 seconds per process after the addition of TCT to STW, suggesting that the addition of a TCT to STW may reduce process fluctuation within the production line.

Additionally, the relationship between standardization and the flexibility of the standardized system within the restaurant was examined in dynamic market conditions, specifically during the COVID-19 pandemic. When sales percentage change in 2019 were compared to 2020 and a local competitor, the restaurant showed an overall increase. This growth may suggest a relationship between standardization and system flexibility.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Funding Information

Stryker Standard 2020-2022