Year of Publication



Martin School of Public Policy and Administration

Date Available


Degree Name

Master of Public Financial Management

Committee Chair

Dr. Rhonda Trautman

Executive Summary

In the contemporary world, IRS Form 990 returns are increasingly being used to source data about the nonprofit sector, which have critical in enhancing the community's social welfare. However, there has been a considerable debate concerning the adequacy, reliability, and quality of the data contained in the document. This study incorporated a total of 150 nonprofit entities from the US to investigate the adequacy, reliability, and quality of Form 990 returns. I used both quantitative and qualitative research methods to evaluate the consistency in the selected data. Selected entries were used for analysis and compared with those of audited financial statements. The findings show that Form 990 provides adequate and reliable information. However, monitoring of the inaccuracies on the document by the stakeholders requires special attention to increase the confidence of the information on the document. Accounting professionals should be vigilant in ensuring they have a clear understanding of the document's purpose to enable faster interpretation



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