Bastnaesite, monazite and xenotime are rare earth minerals (REMs) that are typical sources for rare earth elements (REEs). To advance the understanding of their leaching and precipitation behavior in different hydrometallurgical processes, Eh-pH diagrams were constructed and modified using the HSC 9.9 software. The aqueous stability of rare earth elements in H2O and acid leaching systems, i.e., the REE-Ligands-H2O systems, were depicted and studied based on the Eh-pH diagrams. This study considers the most relevant lixiviants, their resulting equilibrium states and the importance in the hydrometallurgical recovery of rare earth elements (REMs). A literature review was performed summarizing relevant Eh-pH diagrams and associated thermodynamic data. Shifting stability regions for REEs were discovered with additions of acid ligands and a narrow stability region for soluble REE-(SO4/Cl/NO3) complexes under highly acidic conditions. As such, the recovery of REEs can be enhanced by adjusting pH and Eh values. In addition, the Eh-pH diagrams of the major contaminants (i.e., Fe, Ca and Al) in leaching systems were studied. The resulting Eh-pH diagrams provide possible insights into potential passivation on the particle surfaces due to the formation of an insoluble product layer.

Document Type


Publication Date


Notes/Citation Information

Published in Metals, v. 11, issue 5, 734.

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Funding Information

This research was funded by the Department of Energy of United States (DOE-FE0029900), project titled “Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal Byproducts: Characterization and Laboratory- Scale Separation Tests”.

Appendix-A.html (352 kB)
Appendix A