Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (MSME)

Document Type

Master's Thesis




Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Kozo Saito


Combustion has been used for a long time as a means of energy extraction. However, in the recent years there has been further increase in air pollution, through pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, acid rain etc. To solve this problem, there is a need to reduce carbon and nitrogen oxides through lean burning, fuel dilution and usage of bi-product fuel gases. A numerical analysis has been carried out to investigate the effectiveness of several reduced mechanisms, in terms of computational time and accuracy. The cases were tested for the combustion of hydrocarbons diluted with hydrogen, syngas, and bi-product fuel in a cylindrical combustor. The simulations were carried out using the ANSYS Fluent 19.1. By solving the conservations equations, several global reduced mechanisms (2-5-10 steps) were obtained. The reduced mechanisms were used in the simulations for a 2D cylindrical tube with dimensions of 40 cm in length and 2.0 cm diameter.

The mesh of the model included a proper fine quad mesh, within the first 7 cm of the tube and around the walls. By developing a proper boundary layer, several simulations were performed on hydrocarbon/air and syngas blends to visualize the flame characteristics. To validate the results “PREMIX and CHEMKIN” codes were used to calculate 1D premixed flame based on the temperature, composition of burned and unburned gas mixtures. Numerical calculations were carried for several hydrocarbons by changing the equivalence ratios (lean to rich) and adding small amounts of hydrogen into the fuel blends. The changes in temperature, radical formation, burning velocities and the reduction in NOx and CO2 emissions were observed. The results compared to experimental data to study the changes.

Once the results were within acceptable range, different fuels compositions were used for the premixed combustion through adding H2/CO/CO2 by volume and changing the equivalence ratios and preheat temperatures, in the fuel blends. The results on flame temperature, shape, burning velocity and concentrations of radicals and emissions were observed. The flame speed was calculated by finding the surface area of the flame, through the mass fractions of fuel components and products conversions that were simulated through the tube. The area method was applied to determine the flame speed. It was determined that the reduced mechanisms provided results within an acceptable range.

The variation of the inlet velocity had neglectable effects on the burning velocity. The highest temperatures were obtained in lean conditions (0.5-0.9) equivalence ratio and highest flame speed was obtained for Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) at elevated preheat temperature and methane-hydrogen fuels blends in the combustor.

The results included; reduction in CO2 and NOx emissions, expansion of the flammable limit, under the condition of having the same laminar flow. The usage of diluted natural gases, syngas and bi-product gases provides a step in solving environmental problems and providing efficient energy.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)