Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. I.S. Jawahir


The functional performance of joint implants is largely determined by the surface layer properties in contact. Wear/debris-induced osteolysis and aseptic loosening has been identified as the major cause of failure of metal-on-metal joint implants. A crucial requirement for the long-term stability of the artificial joint is to minimize the release of debris particles.

Severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes have been used to modify the surface integrity properties by generating ultrafine, or even nano-sized grains and grain size gradients in the surface region of many materials. These fine grained materials often exhibit enhanced surface integrity properties and improved functional performance (wear resistance, corrosion resistance, fatigue life, etc.) compared with their conventional coarse grained counterparts.

The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of a SPD process, cryogenic burnishing, on the surface integrity modifications of a Co-Cr-Mo alloy, and the resulting wear performance of this alloy due to the burnishing-induced surface integrity properties. A systematic experimental study was conducted to investigate the influence of different burnishing parameters on distribution of grain size, phase structure and residual stresses of the processed material. The wear performance of the processed Co-Cr-Mo alloy was tested via pin-on-disk wear tests. The results from this work show that the cryogenic burnishing can significant improve the surface integrity of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy which would finally lead to advanced wear performance due to refined microstructure, high hardness, compressive residual stresses and favorable phase structure on the surface layer. A finite element model (FEM) was developed for predicting the grain size changes during burnishing of Co-Cr-Mo alloy under both dry and cryogenic conditions. A new material model was used for incorporating flow stress softening and associated grain size refinement caused by the dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The new material model was implemented in a commercial FEM software as a customized user subroutine. Good agreement between predictions and experimental observations was achieved. Encouraging trends are revealed with great potential for application in industry.

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Manufacturing Commons