The first two terms of the Roberts Court signal a willingness to revisit precedent, even decisions that have been considered long-settled, and the United States Supreme Court may be ready to reinterpret another area of jurisprudence: the private enforcement of conditions on federal spending against states through actions under 42 U.S.C. § 1983. The most recent pre-Roberts Court precedent is Gonzaga University v. Doe, a 2002 decision that made it more difficult for individuals harmed by violations of federal laws to enforce rights through § 1983 actions. Federal courts have inconsistently and confusingly applied the Gonzaga framework, but the Rehnquist Court would not revisit the rule.
Last term, however, the Roberts Court granted a petition for writ of certiorari that would have required reconsidering Gonzaga. Before it could be heard on the merits, the respondents mooted the case, but petitions for certiorari regularly arise in similar Medicaid enforcement cases. Thus, Gonzaga could be revisited in the context of enforcement of Medicaid statutory entitlements. Medicaid does not contain an enforcement mechanism, but the Supreme Court has facilitated enforcement of federal statutory rights against state officers through § 1983. However, this paper highlights recent events that increase the fragility of Medicaid.
The first part of this paper explores the structure of Medicaid and key provisions of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 that could change Medicaid from a program of promised care and benefits into one of no enforceable promises. The second part of this paper discusses Supreme Court decisions that reveal hostility to enforcement of conditions on spending legislation by beneficiaries under § 1983. This part also explores how changes in the Court's composition may allow this view to become the prevailing rule. Additionally, this section demonstrates the narrowing ability of individuals to enforce Medicaid entitlements through § 1983 due to two distinct but related splits in the circuit courts. The final part of this paper analyzes the Court's hostility to enforcing conditions on spending by § 1983 and proposes legislative responses to the possible demise of the Medicaid entitlement.
Nicole Huberfeld, Bizarre Love Triangle: The Spending Clause, Section 1983, and Medicaid Entitlements, 42 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 413 (2008).