Natural sands and sands manufactured by crushing larger parent materials are characterized and service tested. Singular attributes are usually confounded with other variables in service tests. Dry-bulking tests and photomicrography are used to established qualities. High-stability porous mixtures are achieved in laboratory tests. Crushing some materials to coarse chip sizes leaves many smooth facets on particles that then tend to become oriented horizontally in the pavement surface. Open-graded friction courses and sprinkle treatments are included. Damage by winter freezing of porous courses is illustrated.

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The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the University of Kentucky, the Kentucky Department of Transportation, nor the Federal Highway Administration. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.