In an effort to increase the utilization of fossil-fuel by product materials in highway construction project, the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet authorized the experimental use of several waste materials. These materials included bottom ashes, fly ash, scrubber sludge, multicone kiln dust, and residues tram atmospheric fluidized bed combustion processes. Bottom ash aggregate was used as a partial replacement for the limestone aggregate in a bituminous surface mix. Non-specification fly ash was used in lieu of Class F fly ash in a stabilized aggregate base. Bottom ash stabilized with residue from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion process was used as a highway subbase layer. Scrubber sludge was used for an embankment construction, Multicone kiln dust and residue from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) process were used to modify the engineering properties of a sot\ subgrade.

Some of the experimental uses of the waste materials proved quite successful. However, the successes achieved in the laboratory studies were not always duplicated in the field trails and some failures occurred. Principally, uses of residues tram the AFBC processes were those that exhibited undesirable performance. Nevertheless, it is believed that economical and effective uses of the AFBC residues in highway construction applications can be achieved by conducting further research on these materials.

Report Date


Report Number


Digital Object Identifier



The contents of this report reflect the views of the author, who is responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the University of Kentucky, the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, nor the Federal Highway Administration. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. The inclusion of manufacturer names or trade names are for identification purposes and are not to be considered as endorsements.