In order to successfully place concrete in cold weather, certain established requirements must be met. The concrete must not be allowed to freeze, it must not be overheated by artificial means in an attempt to protect it from the cold, and proper curing conditions must be maintained during the period of protection to insure sufficient moisture for the cement to hydrate. Generally, temperatures of not less than 50°F and not more than 90°F are satisfactory. These temperatures must be maintained long enough for the concrete to develop sufficient strength to withstand freezing temperatures and to support the loads. Generally, concretes made with other than Type III cement should be maintained at temperatures above freezing for at least six days, and concretes made with Type III cement should be maintained at temperatures above freezing for at least four days.
Digital Object Identifier
Evans, Milton Jr., "Cold-Weather Concreting" (1960). Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report. 1206.