Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Document Type

Master's Thesis




Kinesiology and Health Promotion

First Advisor

Dr. Robert Shapiro


INTRODUCTION: Muscle activity and timing of the swing phases may contribute to the differences we see in athletes at different skill levels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences between mean muscle activity, peak muscle active and time to peak muscle activity for select muscles in the lower extremity as well as the differences between start times for swing phases and bat velocity prior to impact for a skilled and recreational group. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were split into two groups based on competitive level and analyzed hitting off of a tee. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between muscle activity or the start time for the landing and swinging between groups. The skilled group did have a faster time to peak muscle activation for the front leg biceps femoris (p = 0.024), start the shifting (p = 0.12) and stepping (p = 0.11) phases significantly earlier as well as had a higher bat velocity prior to ball contact (p = 0.42) than the recreational group. CONCLUSION: Mean and peak muscle activity trends to be lower for skilled hitters than recreational hitters. Evidence of the skilled group starting the shifting and stepping phase earlier as well as having a higher bat velocity prior to impact could be important in separating hitters into skill level.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)