Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Document Type

Master's Thesis




Kinesiology and Health Promotion

First Advisor

Dr. Michael Pohl


INTRODUCTION: The knee joint is one of the most frequently injured structures in the game of golf. The loads experienced by the knee during the golf swing are typically greater than those experienced during walking. In particular, a heightened lead limb peak external knee adduction moment has been linked to the progression of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). Altering movement patterns is a common strategy that can be used to reduce loading on the knee joint but has received little attention during the golf swing. Also, while such manipulations may be beneficial from an injury prevention perspective, they may have implications on golf performance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects altering stance has on the peak knee adduction moment and swing speed during the golf swing.

METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects were recruited for a 3-dimensional biomechanical analysis wherein participants hit three golf shots using different stance positions in which either foot angle or stance width was altered. The following stance conditions were used: self-selected, 0º foot angle (perpendicular to target line), 30º foot angle (externally rotated), wide stance width, and narrow stance width

RESULTS: Both the 30º foot angle and the wide stance width significantly decreased (p < 0.001) the lead limb peak external knee adduction moment compared to the self-selected golf stance. In contrast, the narrow stance width significantly increased (p = 0.023) the peak knee adduction moment when compared to the self-selected stance. No significant differences were found in the peak knee adduction moment between the 0º foot angle and self-selected stance. Lastly, no significant differences (p = 0.109) were found in swing speed between any of the stance conditions.

CONCLUSION: The externally rotated foot position and wider stance width decreased the lead limb peak knee adduction moment without hindering performance. Considering the prevalence of injury to the lead limb knee joint, modifying a golfer’s stance could potentially be used to increase the longevity of their playing career.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)