Year of Publication
Doctor of Education (EdD)
Kinesiology and Health Promotion
Dr. Richard Riggs
Dr. Mark Dignan
The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of factors associated with nonmedical anabolic steroid use among males ages 18-30 who do not participate in intercollegiate athletics. The Behavioral Intentions and Ergogenic Aid/Performance Enhancer use among non-intercollegiate athlete males survey instrument was developed, reviewed for content validity by a jury of experts, and pilot tested. The pilot testing results (n=25) demonstrated acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s alpha= 0.74). The final version of the Behavioral Intentions and Ergogenic Aid/Performance Enhancer use among non-intercollegiate athlete males survey instrument was administered at two distribution sites which included Ford’s Fitness Center in Lexington, Kentucky and the Johnson Center on the University of Kentucky’s campus to non-intercollegiate athlete men between the ages of 18-30 (n=121). The final version of the survey instrument was also found to be reliable (Cronbach’s alpha= 0.86).
Of the 121 respondents, 7 (5.9%) reported using nonmedical anabolic steroids at least 1-2 days a week or more. A total of 9 (7.4%) men reported intending to use nonmedical anabolic steroids within the next year. Age was found to have a statistically significant association with intention to use nonmedical anabolic steroids (p=.037).
Perceived behavioral control (p=.029) was found to be the strongest predictor variable of study participants’ intention to use nonmedical anabolic steroids. Muscle mass builder use (p=.011) and muscle mass builder use in combination with multivitamin use (p=.000) were found to be significant predictors of actual nonmedical anabolic steroid use. Study participants were more likely to use nonmedical anabolic steroids if they were currently using a muscle mass builder or using a muscle mass builder in combination with a multivitamin. No decision about the effectiveness of the components of perceived behavioral control (self-efficacy and control) as a one or two part construct was possible because of the small number of study participants. Two additional demographic predictor variables were found to be statistically significant with predicting the intention to use nonmedical anabolic steroids. Being a competitive bodybuilder (p=.001) was positively correlated and being satisfied with body image (p=.025) was negatively correlated with the intention to use nonmedical anabolic steroids.
Enaker, Vitesh, "BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS AND NONMEDICAL ANABOLIC STEROID USE AMONG NON INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETE MALES AGES 18-30" (2013). Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion. 13.