Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is usually accompanied by intensive interstitial and perivascular fibrosis, which may contribute to arrhythmogenic sudden cardiac death. The mechanisms underlying the development of cardiac fibrosis are incompletely understood. To investigate the role of perivascular inflammation in coronary artery remodeling and cardiac fibrosis during hypertrophic ventricular remodeling, we used a well-established mouse model of LVH (transverse aortic constriction [TAC]). Three days after pressure overload, macrophages and T lymphocytes accumulated around and along left coronary arteries in association with luminal platelet deposition. Consistent with these histological findings, cardiac expression of IL-10 was upregulated and in the systemic circulation, platelet white blood cell aggregates tended to be higher in TAC animals compared to sham controls. Since platelets can dynamically modulate perivascular inflammation, we investigated the impact of thrombocytopenia on the response to TAC. Immunodepletion of platelets decreased early perivascular T lymphocytes' accumulation and altered subsequent coronary artery remodeling. The contribution of lymphocytes were examined in Rag1(-/-) mice, which displayed significantly more intimal hyperplasia and perivascular fibrosis compared to wild-type mice following TAC. Collectively, our studies support a role of early perivascular accumulation of platelets and T lymphocytes in pressure overload-induced inflammation.

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Published on PLOS One, v. 7, issue. 8, e40196.

© Yang et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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