Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Document Type





Pharmaceutical Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Doug Steinke

Second Advisor

Dr. Val Adams


The development of prostate tumors has been linked to co-morbid diabetes mellitus (DM) in several studies, potentially through the stimulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR). This study evaluates the effect of anti-diabetic medication use on the development of high grade tumors and time to tumor progression compared to non-diabetics. This retrospective, nested case control study identified patients with prostate cancer (PCa) from the Kentucky Medicaid Database. Cases were diagnosed with PCa and DM and using at least one of the following antidiabetic medications; sulfonylureas, insulin, metformin or TZDs. Cases were further stratified on their insulin exposure resulting from therapy. Controls were those with PCa without DM or any anti-diabetic medications. No statistically significant effects on insulin exposure was found on tumor grade and time to progression. Trends identified that use of metformin or TZDs potentially decreased the odds of high-grade tumors and decreased the risk of progression, while sulfonylureas and high-dose insulin may increase the odds of high-grade tumors and increase the risk of progression compared to non-diabetics. Future studies should be conducted to further evaluate the effects of anti-diabetic medications on tumor grade and time to prostate cancer progression.