Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type



Arts and Sciences



First Advisor

Dr. David A. Atwood


There is a global need to find a permanent and readily implemented solution to the problem of heavy metal pollution in aqueous environments. A dithiol compound, benzene-1,3-diamidoethanethiol (BDETH2), also known as N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl) isophthalamide or N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-benzenedicarboxamide, capable of binding divalent metal ions, has been synthesized and characterized. A broad range of BDET-metal compounds, spanning the periodic chart, has been prepared and characterized by IR, MS, EA, Raman, XAFS and TGA. The characteristics of the BDET-M compounds were determined through secondary reactions. In an effort to derivatize BDET-M compounds through alkylalumination a new cyclic compound, 1,3- bis(4,5-dihydrothiazolo)benzene, has been synthesized by refluxing BDETH2 in the presence of AlMe3.

Mineral coating studies have been performed and it was found that coating with BDET prevents metal leaching. XPS studies indicated that covalent bonds exist between BDET and metals at the mineral surfaces.

BDETH2 is not water soluble and must be used as an ethanolic solution to precipitate metals from water. In an effort to find similar ligands that are water-soluble another dithiol compound, N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)oxalamide (MOA), and a monothiol compound, N-mercaptoethyl-furoylamide (MFA), have been synthesized. Each was found to precipitate Cd, Hg and Pb from water, to varying degrees. Some metal compounds of MOA, MFA and dithiothreitol (DTT), a watersoluble dithiol compound have been prepared and characterized. These compounds provide insight into the properties of the BDET-M compounds. For example, it was shown that insolubility in water is a common feature of thiol compounds and is not unique to BDET-M compounds.

Included in

Chemistry Commons



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