Date Available


Year of Publication


Document Type





Pharmaceutical Sciences

First Advisor

Patrick J. McNamara


Transfer of drugs into milk and the clearance of drugs in neonates are critical determinants of the exposure of infants to drugs in breast milk. Models predicting both parameters have been proposed. The objective of this dissertation is to test two models predicting milk to serum ratio and an ontogeny clearance model predicting clearance in the neonate. Predicted milk to serum ratio (M/S) values were generated according to the Atkinson and Begg model. The model did not adequately predict M/S when comparing the predicted values to observed values in the literature. The Fleishaker model was also tested. The model was able to predict whether the drugs appeared in milk by passive diffusion only or whether active transport processes were involved. This model, together with appropriate animal models, is useful in understanding the mechanism of drug transfer into milk. An ontogeny model that predicts clearance was proposed earlier by our laboratory. In order to test the model prediction and assumptions of constant microsomal protein and constant Km for an enzyme-substrate system with age, the male rat was used as an animal model. The ontogeny of Cyp3a1, Cyp3a2, Mdr1a and Mdr1b mRNA was examined in the male rat liver and intestine. The ontogeny pattern of Cyp3a2 mRNA, protein and in vitro Cyp3a activity were found to be similar in male rat liver. The microsomal protein content was found to vary with age in the liver. Km was found to be constant with age for the midazolam 4-hydroxylation by male rat liver microsomes. Scaling factors that extrapolate adult clearance to infant clearance were calculated from in vitro data. The model did not predict the in vivo oral clearance of midazolam for day 7 and 21 age groups from the 112 day age group (adult). The assumption that intestinal availability in the rat pups and adults was equal to unity might not be true resulting in overprediction of rat pup clearance when compared to the adult. Intestinal first pass effect for midazolam in adult rats might be significant. More experiments are needed to further test the model adequacy in clearance prediction.



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