Year of Publication
Douglas D. Archbold
Thomas R. Hamilton-Kemp
Intact strawberry fruit did not produce detectable t-2-H which is derived from -linolenic acid (18:3). However, in response to wounding by gentle bruising, strawberry fruit emitted t-2-H with the largest quantity produced within 10 min following injury. The level of total lipid 18:3 in the fruit increased two-fold in response to wounding whereas free 18:3 declined slightly (about 30%). At 10 min following wounding, fruit exhibited a 25% increase in 13-lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, which leads to the production of 13-hydroperoxyoctadecatrienoic acid (13-HPOT) from 18:3. The activity of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), which catalyzes formation of cis-3-hexenal (c-3-H), the precursor of t-2-H, from 13-HPOT, increased two-fold at 10 min after wounding. Thus, within 15 min after wounding, free 18:3 substrate availability and the activity of two key enzymes, LOX and HPL, changed in a manner consistent with increased t-2-H biosynthesis. The site and mode of interaction of C6 aldehydes with Botrytis cinerea, a common pathogen of many plant species, was characterized using radiolabeled six carbon (C6) aldehydes, including c-3-H and t-2-H. An approximately 25% molar conversion of 18:3 to C6 aldehydes was obtained by enzymatic manipulation with LOX and HPL extracts. Following exposure of Botrytis cultures to radiolabeled aldehydes, radiolabeled aldehydes were recovered in protein fractions, but not in the lipid fraction. They were incorporated into conidia at a 20-fold higher level than mycelia (per mg fresh weight). About 95% of the radiolabeled aldehyde was recovered in proteins on the surface (wash protein) of the fungal tissue, while 5% was from protein in internal tissue (cell wall and membrane and cytosol). Supplementing radiolabeled aldehydes with nonradiolabled C6 aldehydes to increase the vapor phase concentration affected distribution of radiolabel in each protein fraction. The t-2-H at both 5.4 and 85.6 mol affected protein expression patterns, changing the intensity of expression in over one third of all proteins. Both up- and down-regulation of specific proteins were observed. Though five proteins of interest were analyzed, their identities were not determined. However, the data indicate a clear effect of t-2-H on protein expression in Botrytis cinerea.
Myung, Kyung, "BIOSYNTHESIS OF trans-2-HEXENAL IN RESPONSE TO WOUNDING IN STRAWBERRY FRUIT AND INTERACTION OF trans-2-HEXENAL WITH BOTRYTIS CINEREA" (2005). University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations. 445.