Date Available


Year of Publication


Document Type





Plant Pathology

First Advisor

Christopher L. Schardl


Symbioses between cool-season grasses (Subfamily Pooideae) and endophytic fungi in the genera Epichlo and Neotyphodium straddle a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to highly mutualistic. Although these two genera of endophytes are closely related, Neotyphodium endophytes are strictly seed-transmitted and provide many physiological and defensive benefits to their hosts, while Epichlo spp. have an obligately sexual contagious stage wherein host inflorescences are replaced by fungal sexual structures (stromata), effectively sterilizing the plant. Between these two extremes of interactions are Epichlo spp. with a mixed strategy, where some grass tillers are sterilized while others develop normally and yield healthy endophyte-infected seeds. These symbioses offer a unique opportunity to dissect evolutionary mechanisms that may drive movement along this continuum. The research presented characterizes distinct hybridization processes in endophytes and grasses that result in the generation of astounding genetic diversity for the symbiosis. Interspecific hybridization via hyphal anatomosis is a common feature of Neotyphodium endophytes, and may promote mutualism by combining suites of defensive alkaloid genes and ameliorating the adverse evolutionary effects of an asexual lifestyle. My results demonstrate that several genetically distinct hybrid endophytes infect grass species in tribe Poeae. Further, I show that a highly mutualistic asexual endophyte infecting tall fescue (=Festuca arundinaceum Schreb.), Neotyphodium coenophialum, also infects two closely related and interfertile relatives of this host. My findings suggest that this seed-borne endophyte may have been introgressed into these grasses through sexual grass hybridization events. These findings highlight interspecific hybridization as a means of generating tremendous genetic variability in both endophytes and their hosts, thus magnifying the adaptive evolutionary potential of these symbioses. Further, I establish a phylogenetic framework for grasses naturally harboring Epichlo and Neotyphodium endophytes. I show that patterns of genetic divergence among grass lineages are emulated by those of their fungal symbionts. These results suggest that endophytes have co-evolved with grasses in subfamily Pooideae, and may have played a critical role in the evolutionary success and radiation of this group of grasses.



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