Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type





Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

First Advisor

Dr. Laurence G. Hassebrook


Phase measuring Profilometry (PMP) is an important technique used in 3D data acquisition. Many variations of the PMP technique exist in the research world. The technique involves projecting phase shifted versions of sinusoidal patterns with known frequency. The 3D information is obtained from the amount of phase deviation that the target object introduces in the captured patterns. Using patterns based on single frequency result in projecting a large number of patterns necessary to achieve minimal reconstruction errors. By using more than one frequency, that is multi-frequency, the error is reduced with the same number of total patterns projected as in the single frequency case. The first major goal of our research work is to minimize the error in 3D reconstruction for a given scan time using multiple frequency sine wave patterns. A mathematical model to estimate the optimal frequency values and the number of phase shift patterns based on stochastic analysis is given. Experiments are conducted by implementing the mathematical model to estimate the optimal frequencies and the number of patterns projected for each frequency level used. The reduction in 3D reconstruction errors and the quality of the 3D data obtained shows the validity of the proposed mathematical model.

The second major goal of our research work is the implementation of a post-processing algorithm based on stereo correspondence matching adapted to structured light illumination. Composite pattern is created by combining multiple phase shift patterns and using principles from communication theory. Composite pattern is a novel technique for obtaining real time 3D depth information. The depth obtained by the demodulation of captured composite patterns is generally noisy compared to the multi-pattern approach.

In order to obtain realistic 3D depth information, we propose a post-processing algorithm based on dynamic programming. Two different communication theory principles namely, Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) are used to create the composite patterns. As a result of this research work, we developed a series of low-cost structured light scanners based on the multi-frequency PMP technique and tested them for their accuracy in different 3D applications. Three such scanners with different camera systems have been delivered to Toyota for vehicle assembly line inspection. All the scanners use off the shelf components. Two more scanners namely, the single fingerprint and the palmprint scanner developed as part of the Department of Homeland Security grant are in prototype and testing stages.



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