Year of Publication


Document Type



Communication and Information Studies



First Advisor

Rick S. Zimmerman


This study was an effort to uncover four major facts: (a) the predictive power ofthe proposed integrated model, which posits the influence of attitudes (ATT), subjectivenorms (SN), perceived behavior control (PBC), altruism, self-construal, and paperrecyclingknowledge on behavioral intentions; (b) the moderating effects ofindividualism-collectivism (I-C) on the attitudes-intentions relationship and thesubjective norms-intentions relationship; (c) the comparison of the predictive power ofthe TPB model and the proposed integrated model; and (d) the relationship between twointentions measures: behavioral intentions and implementation intentions.This cross-sectional research consisted of two phases: the TPB elicitation researchand the main study. Participants were undergraduate students recruited from two majorpublic universities in Thailand and the U.S. The sample size used in the main analysiscomprised 417 respondents from Thailand (representing a collectivistic society) and 432respondents from the U.S. (representing an individualistic society). Structural equationmodeling (SEM) was employed to investigate the predictability of the TPB model and theintegrated model. Multi-group SEM was implemented to examine the moderating effectsof I-C. Correlation analysis was conducted to detect the relationship between the twointentions measures.The results yielded some significant findings enhancing our understanding ofpaper-recycling intentions of college students in the two countries. First, TPBdeterminants, especially PBC and SN, were potential predictors of paper recycling.Although ATT was not a successful antecedent of intentions in Thailand, it predictedintentions of U.S. participants. Second, altruism was a significant factor explaining ATTand PBC for both samples; it also directly influenced intentions. Third, two types of selfconstrualsignificantly and distinctively affected ATT and SN. Fourth, paper-recyclingknowledge failed to predict either attitudes or intentions in either country. Fifth, althoughthe ratio difference of the model X2 and the R2 showed the TPB model to be slightly morepowerful than the integrated model, and TPB was more parsimonious, the integratedmodel advances our understanding of additional psychosocial and cultural factors withregard to paper recycling. Finally, the significant correlation between the behavioralintentionsand the implementation-intentions measures were positive and relatively high.Findings can benefit communication campaigns targeting audiences in different cultures.