Author ORCID Identifier

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0540-8377

Year of Publication

2019

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

College

Public Health

Department

Epidemiology and Biostatistics

First Advisor

Dr. Erin L. Abner

Abstract

Chronic pulmonary diseases include a wide range of illnesses that differ in etiology, prevalence, symptomatology and available therapy. A common link among these illnesses is their impact on patients’ vital function of breathing, high symptom burden and significantly impaired quality of life.

This dissertation research evaluates disease severity, symptom burden and health behaviors of patients with three different chronic pulmonary conditions. First, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an inherited condition that typically is associated with an increased risk of early onset pulmonary emphysema. This study examines differences in demographic, health, and behavioral characteristics and compares clinical outcomes and health related behaviors and attitudes between two severe genotypes of AATD - ZZ and SZ. The findings of the study suggest that patients with SZ genotype and less severe form of deficiency report higher number of exacerbations, comorbidities, as well as unhealthy behaviors such as lack of exercise and current smoking. In addition, individuals with the more severely deficient ZZ genotype are more adherent to disease management and prevention program recommendations and maintain a healthier lifestyle than individuals with SZ genotype.

Second chronic lung disease examined in this research was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the fourth leading cause of death and second leading cause of disability in the United States. Prevalence and burden of cough and phlegm, two of the most common symptoms of the COPD, were assessed among participants of the COPD Foundation’s Patient-Powered Research Network (COPD PPRN). In addition, association between patient-reported levels of phlegm and cough, clinical outcomes and patients’ quality of life were evaluated. Participants’ quality of life was assessed using Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System instrument PROMIS-29. Association between changes in symptom severity over time and patient-reported quality of life were examined. Findings of this study indicated that severity of cough and phlegm were associated with higher number of exacerbations, greater dyspnea, and worsened patient-reported quality of life including physical and social functioning. Improvement in cough and phlegm severity over time was associated with better patient-reported quality of life.

Third pulmonary illness described in this dissertation is non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB), a rare and etiologically diverse condition characterized by dilated bronchi, poor mucus clearance and susceptibility to bacterial infection. Association between presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in patients with NCFFB, and disease severity was assessed utilizing enrollment data from the Bronchiectasis and NTM Research Registry (BRR). NCFB disease severity was evaluated using modified versions of validated in large international cohorts instruments, the Bronchiectasis Severity Index (BSI) and FACED. The findings of this study indicate that PA infection is common in NCFB patients, and presence of PA in patients’ sputum is associated with having moderate and high severity of bronchiectasis. In addition, the results of this study suggest that the two severity assessment instruments classify patients with NCFB differently which may be attributed to a greater number of severity markers utilized in the calculation of the BSI compared to FACED.

In conclusion, the proposed dissertation aims to enhance understanding of differences in health outcomes between genotypes of AATD within AlphaNet registry, and to guide future health-promoting behaviors. It highlights the burden of common symptoms such as cough and phlegm in patients with COPD within COPD PPRN and their association with patients’ quality of life. In addition, it introduces modified indices of NCFB severity and emphasizes high burden of the disease in patients with presence of PA within the US BRR.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

https://doi.org/10.13023/etd.2019.059

Funding Information

This research was partially supported by an unrestricted research grant from AlphaNet, and partially by the COPD Foundation, and through a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute® (PCORI®) Award (PPRN-1306-04748 Phase II) for the development of the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network, known as PCORnet® and through the COPD Foundation, Washington DC. The statements presented in this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute® (PCORI®), its Board of Governors or Methodology Committee or other participants in PCORnet®.

Available for download on Sunday, April 18, 2021

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