Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Michael D. Toland


Achievement goal theory is one of the most broadly accepted theoretical paradigms in educational psychology with over 35 years of influencing research and educational practice. The longstanding use of this construct has led to two consequences of importance for this research: 1) many different dimensionality representations have been debated, and 2) methods used to confirm dimensionality of the scales have been supplanted from best practice. A further issue is that goal orientations are used to inform classroom practice, whereas most measurement studies focus on the structure of the personal goal orientation scales rather than the classroom level structure. This study aims to provide an updated understanding of one classroom goal orientation scale using the modern psychometric techniques of multidimensional item response theory and bifactor analysis. The most commonly used scale with K-12 students is the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS); thus, the PALS classroom goal orientation scales will be the subject of this study.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)