This paper provides background and historical events of Geomagnetic Disturbances (GMD), and reviews GMD impacts on power systems equipment, and associated protection and control systems, mitigating measures, and Geomagnetic Induced Current (GIC) monitoring methods. This paper is a summary of the IEEE PES-TR72 report, titled, GMD Impacts on Protection Systems, prepared by the K17 Working Group of the IEEE Power System Relaying and Control committee.
IEEE Power System Relaying and Control Committee K17 Working Group. (2019). Geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) impacts on protection system. Report no.: IEEE PES-TR72
Qiu, Qun; Madani, V.; Manna, Tapan; Raffield, T.; Klecker, S.; Liao, Yuan; Meliopoulos, S.; and Fontana, D., "Geomagnetic Disturbances (GMD) Impacts on Protection Systems" (2021). Electrical and Computer Engineering Presentations. 4.