Internet of Things (IoT) devices have strict energy constraints as they often operate on a battery supply. The cryptographic operations within IoT devices consume substantial energy and are vulnerable to a class of hardware attacks known as side-channel attacks. To reduce the energy consumption and defend against side-channel attacks, we propose combining adiabatic logic and Magnetic Tunnel Junctions to form our novel Energy Efficient-Adiabatic CMOS/MTJ Logic (EE-ACML). EE-ACML is shown to be both low energy and secure when compared to existing CMOS/MTJ architectures. EE-ACML reduces dynamic energy consumption with adiabatic logic, while MTJs reduce the leakage power of a circuit. To show practical functionality and energy savings, we designed one round of PRESENT-80 with the proposed EE-ACML integrated with an adiabatic clock generator. The proposed EE-ACML-based PRESENT-80 showed energy savings of 67.24% at 25 MHz and 86.5% at 100 MHz when compared with a previously proposed CMOS/MTJ circuit. Furthermore, we performed a CPA attack on our proposed design, and the key was kept secret.

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Published in Sensors, v. 21, issue 22, 7651.

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation CAREER Award No. 185448.

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This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Kahleifeh, Z.; Thapliyal, H. Low-Energy and CPA-Resistant Adiabatic CMOS/MTJ Logic for IoT Devices. In Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI), Tampa, FL, USA, 7–9 July 2021; pp. 314–319.