The equivalent circuit model for utility-scale battery energy storage systems (BESS) is beneficial for multiple applications including performance evaluation, safety assessments, and the development of accurate models for simulation studies. This paper evaluates and compares the performance of utility-scale equivalent circuit models developed at multiple sub-component levels, i.e. at the rack, module, and cell levels. This type of modeling is used to demonstrate that the equivalent circuit model for a reference cell, module, or rack of a BESS can be scaled to represent the entire battery system provided that the battery management system (BMS) is active and functional. Contrary to the rapid pulse discharge cycles employed in conventional cell parameter estimation approaches, the study proposes a new charge/discharge cycle for identifying the equivalent circuit parameters for utility-scale battery systems using equipment readily available at installation sites without the need for laboratory setups. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis for classifying and quantifying the effect of each equivalent circuit parameter on the performance of the proposed battery system model was executed. The measurements and simulations are conducted for a 1MW/2MWh BESS testing facility located at the Louisville Gas and Electric and Kentucky Utilities (LG&E and KU) E.W. Brown generating plant. The results indicate that for the example utility-scale battery setup with an active BMS, the equivalent circuit model of either the cell, module, or rack can be scaled to represent the battery system with less than 1% average voltage error.

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Published in IEEE Access, v. 8.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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This work was supported in part by LG&E and KU, and in part by the L. Stanley Pigman Endowment, University of Kentucky.