We design and fabricate ultra-broadband achromatic metalenses operating from the visible into the short-wave infrared, 450–1700 nm, with diffraction-limited performance. A hybrid 3D architecture, which combines nanoholes with a phase plate, allows realization in low refractive index materials. As a result, two-photon lithography can be used for prototyping while molding can be used for mass production. Experimentally, a 0.27 numerical aperture (NA) metalens exhibits 60% average focusing efficiency and 6% maximum focal length error over the entire bandwidth. In addition, a 200 μm diameter, 0.04 NA metalens was used to demonstrate achromatic imaging over the same broad spectral range. These results show that 3D metalens architectures yield excellent performance even using low-refractive index materials, and that two-photon lithography can produce metalenses operating at visible wavelengths.
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This work was partially supported by Intel Corp. The authors thank the UK Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, a member of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI), which is supported by the National Science Foundation (ECCS-2025075). This work used equipment supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. CMMI-1125998.
The online version of this article offers supplementary material (https://doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2020-0550).
The supplementary material is also available for download as the additional file listed at the end of this record.
Balli, Fatih; Sultan, Mansoor A.; Ozdemir, Aytekin; and Hastings, J. Todd, "An Ultrabroadband 3D Achromatic Metalens" (2021). Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications. 43.