Lead-free solution-processed solid-state photovoltaic devices based on formamidinium tin triiodide (FASnI3) and cesium tin triiodide (CsSnI3) perovskite semiconductor as the light harvester are reported. In this letter, we used solvent engineering and anti-solvent dripping method to fabricate perovskite films. SnCl2 was used as an inhibitor of Sn4+ in FASnI3 precursor solution. We obtained the best films under the function of toluene or chlorobenzene in anti-solvent dripping method and monitored the oxidation of FASnI3 films in air. We chose SnF2 as an additive of CsSnI3 precursor solution to prevent the oxidation of the Sn2+, improving the stability of CsSnI3. The experimental results we obtained can pave the way for lead-free tin-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs).

Document Type


Publication Date


Notes/Citation Information

Published in Nanoscale Research Letters, v. 12, issue 1, 367, p. 1-6.

© The Author(s). 2017

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Funding Information

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61421002, 61574029, and 61371046. This work was also partially supported by University of Kentucky.