Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Electrical Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Dan M. Ionel


Electric machines with high torque density are essential for many low-speed direct-drive systems, such as wind turbines, electric vehicles, and industrial automation. Permanent magnet (PM) machines that incorporate a magnetic gearing effect are particularly useful for these applications due to their potential for achieving extremely high torque density. However, when the number of rotor polarities is increased, there is a corresponding need to increase the number of stator slots and coils proportionally. This can result in manufacturing challenges. A new topology of an axial-flux vernier-type machine of MAGNUS type has been presented to address the mentioned limitation. These machines can attain high electrical frequency using only a few stator coils and teeth, which can simplify construction and manufacturing under certain conditions. Additionally, the inclusion of auxiliary small teeth within the stator main teeth can generate a noteworthy increase in output torque, making it a unique characteristic of this motor. By analyzing the operating principle of the proposed VTFM PM machine, possible pole-slot combinations have been derived. The process of designing an electric machine is complicated and involves several variables and factors that must be balanced by the designer, such as efficiency, cost, and performance requirements. To achieve a successful design, it is crucial to employ multi-objective optimization. Using a 3D FEA model can consider the impact of magnetic saturation, leakage flux, and end effects, which are not accounted for in 2D. Optimization using a 3D parametric model can offer a more precise analysis. Validating the machine's performance requires prototyping a model and testing it under different operating conditions, such as speed and load, which is a crucial step. This approach provides valuable insights into the machine's behavior, allowing the identification of any areas for improvement or weaknesses. A large-scale multi-objective optimization study has been conducted for an axial-flux vernier-type PM machine with a 3-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) to minimize the material cost and maximize the electromagnetic efficiency. A detailed study for torque contribution has indicated that auxiliary teeth on each stator main teeth amplify net torque production. A prototype of optimal design has been built and tested.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)