Author ORCID Identifier
Year of Publication
Master of Science in Electrical Engineering (MSEE)
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dr. Zhi David Chen
Since the dawning of the industrial revolution, the world has had a need for mass energy production. In the 1950s silicon solar panels were invented. Silicon solar panels have been the main source of solar energy production. They have set the standard for power conversion efficiency for subsequent generations of photovoltaic technology. Solar panels utilize light’s ability to generate an electron hole pair. By creating a PN Junction in the photovoltaic semiconductor, the electron and hole are directed in opposing layers of the solar panel generating the electric current. Second generation solar panels utilized different thin film materials to fabricate solar panels. Materials such as Cadmium Telluride, Copper Indium Gallium Selenide, and amorphous silicon. This technology is now seen commercially available around the world. In the research community a third generation of solar panel technology is being developed. Perovskites are an emerging third generation solar panel technology. Perovskites’ power conversion efficiency have increased from 3.8% to 24.2% over the span of a decade. Perovskite crystals have desirable optical properties such has a high absorption coefficient, long carrier diffusion length, and high photoluminescence. The most prominent types of perovskites for solar cell research are organic metal halide perovskites. These perovskites utilize the desirable properties of organic electronics. Electrochemical techniques such as additives, catalysts, excess of particular chemicals, and variations in antisolvents impact the electronic properties of the perovskite crystal. The perovskite is however on layer of the device. Solar cell devices incorporate multiple layers. The materials for the electron transport layer, hole transport material, and choice of metal electrode have an impact on device performance and the current voltage relationship. Current silicon photovoltaic devices are more expensive than conventional fossil fuel. Modeling perovskite solar cells in a simulated environment is critical for data analytics, real fabrication behavior projection, and quantum mechanics of the semiconductor device. Photovoltaic semiconductors are diodes which produce a current when exposed to light. The ideality factor is a parameter which tells how closely a semiconductor behaves to an ideal diode. In an ideal diode, the only mechanism for hole electron recombination is direct bimolecular recombination. Because there are multiple mechanisms of recombination, there are no real devices with a perfect ideality factor. The types of recombination occurring within a device can be inferred by its ideality factor. In this research. Analyzing fabricated perovskite solar cells using their ideality factor can indicate which type of recombination is dominant in the device. The interaction between the perovskite crystal and transport layers is of high interest as differentials in energy level bands can hinder overall power conversion efficiency and act as a site for nonradiative recombination loss. In addition, the use of Machine Learning (ML) to research and predict the opto-electronic properties of perovskite can greatly accelerate the development of this technology. ML techniques such as Linear Regression (LR), Support Vector Regression (SVR), and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can greatly improve the chemical processing and manufacturing techniques. Such tools used to improve this technology have major impacts for the further proliferation of solar energy on a national scale. These tools can also be used to optimize power conversion efficiency of perovskites, This optimization is critical for commercial use of perovskite solar panel technology. Various electrochemical and fabrication strategies are currently being researched in order to optimize power conversion efficiency and minimize energy loss. There are current results which suggest the addition of particular ions in the perovskite crystal have a positive impact on the power conversion efficiency. The qualities of the cell such as crystallinity, defects, and grain size play important roles in the electrical properties of the cell. Along with the quality of the perovskite crystal, its interfacing with the transport layers plays a critical role in the operation of the device. In this thesis, perovskite solar cells are fabricated and simulated to research their optoelectronic properties. The optoelectronic behavior of simulated solar cells is manipulated to match that or cells. By researching this new optoelectronic material in a virtual environment, applicability and plausibility are demonstrated. This legitimizes the continued research of this third-generation solar panel material.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Workman, Maniell, "Fabrication and Simulation of Perovskite Solar Cells" (2021). Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering. 165.