Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Himanshu Thapliyal


Quantum computers offer the potential to extend our abilities to tackle computational problems in fields such as number theory, encryption, search and scientific computation. Up to a superpolynomial speedup has been reported for quantum algorithms in these areas. Motivated by the promise of faster computations, the development of quantum machines has caught the attention of both academics and industry researchers. Quantum machines are now at sizes where implementations of quantum algorithms or their components are now becoming possible. In order to implement quantum algorithms on quantum machines, resource efficient circuits and functional blocks must be designed. In this work, we propose quantum circuits for Galois and integer arithmetic. These quantum circuits are necessary building blocks to realize quantum algorithms.

The design of resource efficient quantum circuits requires the designer takes into account the gate cost, quantum bit (qubit) cost, depth and garbage outputs of a quantum circuit. Existing quantum machines do not have many qubits meaning that circuits with high qubit cost cannot be implemented. In addition, quantum circuits are more prone to errors and garbage output removal adds to overall cost. As more gates are used, a quantum circuit sees an increased rate of failure. Failures and error rates can be countered by using quantum error correcting codes and fault tolerant implementations of universal gate sets (such as Clifford+T gates). However, Clifford+T gates are costly to implement with the T gate being significantly more costly than the Clifford gates. As a result, designers working with Clifford+T gates seek to minimize the number of T gates (T-count) and the depth of T gates (T-depth). In this work, we propose quantum circuits for Galois and integer arithmetic with lower T-count, T-depth and qubit cost than existing work.

This work presents novel quantum circuits for squaring and exponentiation over binary extension fields (Galois fields of form GF(2 m )). The proposed circuits are shown to have lower depth, qubit and gate cost to existing work. We also present quantum circuits for the core operations of multiplication and division which enjoy lower T-count, T-depth and qubit costs compared to existing work. This work also illustrates the design of a T-count and qubit cost efficient design for the square root. This work concludes with an illustration of how the arithmetic circuits can be combined into a functional block to implement quantum image processing algorithms.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)