Year of Publication



Public Health

Date Available


Degree Name

Master of Public Health (M.P.H.)

Committee Chair

Dr. Craig Carter

Committee Member

Dr. April Young

Committee Member

Dr. Kathleen Winter


Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a complex problem that affects all of society and is driven by many interconnected factors. It is important to monitor AMR trends in veterinary medicine to accurately pursue appropriate antibiotic treatment of ill animals. Antibiogram development is also an important tool in guiding the veterinary practitioner in treating empirically or while a culture and susceptibility is being performed.

Methods: This study compared bacterial susceptibility in voluntary samples submitted to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and the Murray State University Breathitt Veterinary Center between 2012 and 2017. Equality of proportions was used to compare 40 isolate/antibiotic pairs in 2012 and 2017.

Results: There was a significant increase in E. coli’ssusceptibility to ampicillin (p-value = 0.0243, CI 0.0138, 0.1928), gentamicin (p-value = 0.002, CI 0.0387, 0.1649), neomycin (p-value = 0.0003, CI 0.0731, 0.2334, and oxytetracycline (pvalue = 0.0444, CI 0.0027, 0.2032). There was a significant decrease in Enterococcus’s susceptibility to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (p-value = < 0.001, CI 0.5243, 1). There was a significant increase in Histophilus somni’s susceptibility to enrofloxacin (p-value = 0.0028, CI 0.1081, 0.474). There was a significant increase in Mannheimia haemolytica’s susceptibility to enrofloxacin (p-value = 0.0013, CI 0.0752, 0.3024), florfenicol (p-value = 0.0041, CI 0.0533, 0.2759), spectinomycin (p-value = < 0.001, CI 0.1748, 0.3895), and tulathromycin (p-value = 0.0023, CI 0.0656, 0.2953).

Conclusion/Discussion: It will be important to continue to monitor use of antibiotics that are considered medically important in human medicine. The Veterinary Feed Directive is a step in the right direction to promote good antibiotic stewardship. Antibiotics used in metaphylaxsis should be reviewed for susceptibility to ensure the proper antibiotics are used in a given population. Antibiograms, whether a chart or a map, can be beneficial for veterinarians in their antibiotic selection.

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