Solution processed organic field effect transistors can become ubiquitous in flexible optoelectronics. While progress in material and device design has been astonishing, low environmental and operational stabilities remain longstanding problems obstructing their immediate deployment in real world applications. Here, we introduce a strategy to identify the most probable and severe degradation pathways in organic transistors and then implement a method to eliminate the main sources of instabilities. Real time monitoring of the energetic distribution and transformation of electronic trap states during device operation, in conjunction with simulations, revealed the nature of traps responsible for performance degradation. With this information, we designed the most efficient encapsulation strategy for each device type, which resulted in fabrication of high performance, environmentally and operationally stable small molecule and polymeric transistors with consistent mobility and unparalleled threshold voltage shifts as low as 0.1 V under the application of high bias stress in air.

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Published in Nature Communications, v. 12, issue 1, article no. 2352.

© The Author(s) 2021

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The work at Wake Forest University was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant No. DMR-1627925, while the work at the University of Kentucky was supported through Grant No. DMR-1627428. Computing resources on the Lipscomb High Performance Computing Cluster were provided by the University of Kentucky Information Technology Department and the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS). I.M. acknowledges funding from KAUST Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under awards no. OSR-2018-CARF/CCF-3079, no. OSR-2015-CRG4-2572 and OSR-4106 CPF2019, as well as EC FP7 Project SC2 (610115), EC H2020 (643791), and EPSRC EP/M005143/1.

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The data sets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable requests.

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