Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science in Biomedical Engineering

Document Type

Master's Thesis




Biomedical Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Guoqiang Yu


This study combines noninvasive hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] with occlusive calibration for continuous measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), tissue blood oxygenation (StO2), and oxygen consumption rate (VO2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Subjects performed rhythmic dynamic handgrip exercise, while an optical probe connected to a hybrid NIRS/DCS flow-oximeter directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and [tHb]), StO2, relative BF (rBF), and relative VO2 (rVO2) in the forearm flexor muscles. Absolute baseline BF and VO2 were obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively, and used to calibrate continuous relative parameters. Previously known problems with muscle fiber motion artifact in optical measurements were mitigated with a novel dynamometer-based gating algorithm. Nine healthy young subjects were measured and results validated against previous literature findings. Ten older subjects with fibromyalgia and thirteen age-matched healthy controls were then successfully measured to observe differences in hemodynamic and metabolic response to exercise. This study demonstrates a novel application of NIRS/DCS technology to simultaneously evaluate quantitative hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle. This method has broad application to research and clinical assessment of disease (e.g. peripheral vascular disease, fibromyalgia), treatment evaluation, and sports medicine.