Author ORCID Identifier

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1598-1596

Year of Publication

2019

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

College

Medicine

Department

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

First Advisor

Dr. Hunter N. B. Moseley

Abstract

Metabolomics is the study of metabolomes, the sets of metabolites observed in living systems. Metabolism interconverts these metabolites to provide the molecules and energy necessary for life processes. Many disease processes, including cancer, have a significant metabolic component that manifests as differences in what metabolites are present and in what quantities they are produced and utilized. Thus, using metabolomics, differences between metabolomes in disease and non-disease states can be detected and these differences improve our understanding of disease processes at the molecular level. Despite the potential benefits of metabolomics, the comprehensive investigation of metabolomes remains difficult.

A popular analytical technique for metabolomics is mass spectrometry. Advances in Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-MS) instrumentation have yielded simultaneous improvements in mass resolution, mass accuracy, and detection sensitivity. In the metabolomics field, these advantages permit more complicated, but more informative experimental designs such as the use of multiple isotope-labeled precursors in stable isotope-resolved metabolomics (SIRM) experiments.

However, despite these potential applications, several outstanding problems hamper the use of FT-MS for metabolomics studies. First, artifacts and data quality problems in FT-MS spectra can confound downstream data analyses, confuse machine learning models, and complicate the robust detection and assignment of metabolite features. Second, the assignment of observed spectral features to metabolites remains difficult. Existing targeted approaches for assignment often employ databases of known metabolites; however, metabolite databases are incomplete, thus limiting or biasing assignment results. Additionally, FT-MS provides limited structural information for observed metabolites, which complicates the determination of metabolite class (e.g. lipid, sugar, etc. ) for observed metabolite spectral features, a necessary step for many metabolomics experiments.

To address these problems, a set of tools were developed. The first tool identifies artifacts with high peak density observed in many FT-MS spectra and removes them safely. Using this tool, two previously unreported types of high peak density artifact were identified in FT-MS spectra: fuzzy sites and partial ringing. Fuzzy sites were particularly problematic as they confused and reduced the accuracy of machine learning models trained on datasets containing these artifacts. Second, a tool called SMIRFE was developed to assign isotope-resolved molecular formulas to observed spectral features in an untargeted manner without a database of expected metabolites. This new untargeted method was validated on a gold-standard dataset containing both unlabeled and 15N-labeled compounds and was able to identify 18 of 18 expected spectral features. Third, a collection of machine learning models was constructed to predict if a molecular formula corresponds to one or more lipid categories. These models accurately predict the correct one of eight lipid categories on our training dataset of known lipid and non-lipid molecular formulas with precisions and accuracies over 90% for most categories.

These models were used to predict lipid categories for untargeted SMIRFE-derived assignments in a non-small cell lung cancer dataset. Subsequent differential abundance analysis revealed a sub-population of non-small cell lung cancer samples with a significantly increased abundance in sterol lipids. This finding implies a possible therapeutic role of statins in the treatment and/or prevention of non-small cell lung cancer. Collectively these tools represent a pipeline for FT-MS metabolomics datasets that is compatible with isotope labeling experiments. With these tools, more robust and untargeted metabolic analyses of disease will be possible.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

https://doi.org/10.13023/etd.2019.222

Funding Information

This research was supported by NSF 1419282 (Hunter N. B. Moseley), NSF 1252893 (Hunter N. B. Moseley), NIH 1R01ES022191-01 (Teresa W.-M. Fan, Richard M. Higashi, and Hunter N. B. Moseley), NIH 1U24DK097215-01A1 (Richard M. Higashi, Teresa W.-M. Fan, Andrew N. Lane, and Hunter N. B. Moseley), NIH P01CA163223-01A1 (Andrew N. Lane and Teresa W.-M. Fan), NIH R25-CA134283 (David W. Hein), NIH UL1TR001998-01 (Philip A. Kern), NIH 5P20GM121327-02 Pilot Project (Qing Jun Wang) and American Heart Association AHA16GRNT31310020 (Qing Jun Wang).

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