Year of Publication


Document Type



Arts and Sciences



First Advisor

Dr. Arthur Cammers


Although attractive interactions between π systems (π-π interaction) have been known for many years, understanding of its origin is still incomplete. Quantitative measuring of π-stacking is challenging due to the weak nature of the π-π interaction. This dissertation aims at elucidating a quantitative conformational analysis by NMR ring current anisotropy of an organic compound capable of intramolecular π-stacking in solution and studying charge effects on the stacking of π-systems. This dissertation offers four contributions to the area. (1) A general approach to four-state, conformational analysis based on the magnetic anisotropy of molecules undergoing fast dynamic exchange is described. (2) Study unveiled the importance of charges in the conformation of a dication in the solution. (3) Novel aromatic salt pairs of triangulene derivatives with the delocalized cation-anion interaction were synthesized and studied. (4) Study unveiled ionic π-systems preferred face-to-face stacking due to strong cation-π and anion-cation attractions.

A general protocol for the application of magnetic anisotropy to quantitative multi-state conformational analysis of molecules undergoing fast conformational exchange was suggested in the current study. The reliability of this method of conformational analysis was checked by the mass balance. VT-NMR was also conducted to study the enthalpic parameters. This technique can be further used to study canonical interactions such as ion pairing, hydrogen boning, and molecular recognition.

In the current study, dependence of the probe conformations on the dispersive interactions at the aromatic edges between solvent and probes was tested by conformational distributions of the fluorinated derivatives (2b and 2c) of the probe molecule (1a). Solution and solid studies of these molecules put the previous conclusion drawn by the Cammers group in question. Current studies show that the dispersive interaction at the aromatic edge could not be the predominant force on the conformational changes in the probe molecule 1a during the fluoroalkanol perturbation. This study indicated that charges might be important in the formation of the folding conformations in the solution and solid state of 1a, 2b, and 2c. A contribution of this thesis was to prepare and study a conformational model that lacked charges. The previous molecules were charged.

The solid-state structures of pyridinium-derived aromatic rings from the CSD (Cambridge Structural Database) were studied to investigate the π-π interaction between cationic π-systems in solid state. Novel aromatic salt pairs of triangulene derivatives with the delocalized cation-anion interaction were synthesized to study the π-π interaction between two aromatic rings that carried opposite charges. This study showed that the interaction between ionic π-systems can be enhanced by cation-π and anion-cation attractions. The stackings of these π-systems introduce more overlap, closer packing and stronger atomic contact than that of the solid states of comparable neutral species. Cation-π and anion-cation attractions are synergistic in aromatic salts.

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