Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the US and is associated with the highest cost per patient. A high likelihood of recurrence, mandating stringent surveillance protocols, has made the development of urinary markers a focus of intense pursuit with the hope of decreasing the burden this disease places on patients and the healthcare system. To date, routine use of markers is not recommended for screening or diagnosis. Interests include the development of a single urinary marker that can be used in place of or as an adjunct to current screening and surveillance techniques, as well identifying a molecular signature for an individual's disease that can help predict progression, prognosis, and potential therapeutic response. Markers have shown potential value in improving diagnostic accuracy when used as an adjunct to current modalities, risk-stratification of patients that could aid the clinician in determining aggressiveness of surveillance, and allowing for a decrease in invasive surveillance procedures. This review discusses the current understanding of emerging biomarkers, including miRNAs, gene signatures and detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood, and their potential clinical value in bladder cancer diagnosis, as prognostic indicators, and surveillance tools, as well as limitations to their incorporation into medical practice.

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Published in International Journal of Molecular Sciences, v. 15, no. 12, p. 23897-23908.

© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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The authors acknowledge support from the James F. Hardymon Endowment and the Markey Cancer Center.

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