OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to quantify the adhesion strength differential between an oral bacterial biofilm and an osteoblast-like cell monolayer to a dental implant-simulant surface and develop a metric that quantifies the biocompatible effect of implant surfaces on bacterial and cell adhesion.
METHODS: High-amplitude short-duration stress waves generated by laser pulse absorption are used to spall bacteria and cells from titanium substrates. By carefully controlling laser fluence and calibration of laser fluence with applied stress, the adhesion difference between Streptococcus mutans biofilms and MG 63 osteoblast-like cell monolayers on smooth and rough titanium substrates is obtained. The ratio of cell adhesion strength to biofilm adhesion strength (i.e., Adhesion Index) is determined as a nondimensionalized parameter for biocompatibility assessment.
RESULTS: Adhesion strength of 143 MPa, with a 95% C.I. (114, 176), is measured for MG 63 cells on smooth titanium and 292 MPa, with a 95% C.I. (267, 306), on roughened titanium. Adhesion strength for S. mutans on smooth titanium is 320 MPa, with a 95% C.I. (304, 333), and remained relatively constant at 332 MPa, with a 95% C.I. (324, 343), on roughened titanium. The calculated Adhesion Index for smooth titanium is 0.451, with a 95% C.I. (0.267, 0.622), which increased to 0.876, with a 95% C.I. (0.780, 0.932), on roughened titanium.
SIGNIFICANCE: The laser spallation technique provides a platform to examine the tradeoffs of adhesion modulators on both biofilm and cell adhesion. This tradeoff is characterized by the Adhesion Index, which is proposed to aid biocompatibility screening and could help improve implantation outcomes. The Adhesion Index is implemented to determine surface factors that promote favorable adhesion of cells greater than biofilms. Here, an Adhesion Index ≫ 1 suggests favorable biocompatibility.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
We gratefully acknowledge NIH Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) in Pharmaceutical Research and Innovation (CPRI, P20GM130456), COBRE Phase III pilot funding (P30GM110788), and NIH NIDCR funding (R03DE029547) for completion of these experiments.
The raw and processed data required to reproduce these findings are available to download from https://doi.org/10.18126/TW5W-XTWE via the Materials Data Facility.
Boyd, James D.; Stromberg, Arnold J.; Miller, Craig S.; and Grady, Martha E., "Biofilm and Cell Adhesion Strength on Dental Implant Surfaces via the Laser Spallation Technique" (2021). Statistics Faculty Publications. 30.