Background: Clinical tests should replicate the stressful positions encountered during sport participation. Evaluating the kinetic and electromyographical demands of clinical tests enables clinicians to choose appropriate tests for specific sports.
Purpose: To describe the shoulder forces and muscle activation levels during closed chain functional tests of Line Hops (LH) and Side Hold Rotation (SHR).
Study Design: Descriptive biomechanical study.
Methods: Ten asymptomatic participants were examined in a university laboratory. Two functional tests were evaluated using three-dimensional video analysis and electromyography to measure shoulder forces, moments, and muscular activity levels.
Results: SHR produced a peak average posterior translation force of 4.84 N/kg (CI95 4.32-5.36N/kg) and a peak average anterior translational force of 1.57 N/kg (CI95 1.10-2.01N/kg). High levels of serratus anterior (98% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and infraspinatus (52 %MVIC) were recorded during SHR. LH produced a posterior translational force of 4.25 N/kg (CI95 3.44–5.06N/kg). High levels of serratus anterior (105 %MVIC) and infraspinatus (87 %MVIC) were recorded during the push off phase of this activity.
Conclusions: LH and SHR placed large posterior translational forces that approached half of a person's bodyweight on shoulder structures. SHR produced an anterior translation force at extremes of horizontal abduction placing approximately 18% of bodyweight on shoulder structures. The LH test required the serratus anterior to provide power to push the upper torso of the ground while both the serratus and the infraspinatus provides scapular and humeral stability, respectively.
Level of Evidence: 4: Case series.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Olds, Margie K.; Lemaster, Nicole; Picha, Kelsey; Walker, Cody; Heebner, Nicholas R.; and Uhl, Timothy L., "Line Hops and Side Hold Rotation Tests Load Both Anterior and Posterior Shoulder: A Biomechanical Study" (2021). Sports Medicine Research Institute Faculty Publications. 2.
Figure 1: Line Hops and Side Hold Rotations
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Figure 2: Marker placement for Vicon model
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Figure 3: Shoulder to Spine Joint coordinate model
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Figure 4: a) External shoulder anterior/posterior shear force, b) horizontal adduction/abduction moment, c) compression/distraction force and d) vertical ground reaction force during the Side Hold Rotation test
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Figure 5: Muscle activity during the four phases of the Side Hold Rotation test
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Figure 6: a) External anterior/posterior shoulder force, b) horizontal adduction/abduction moment, c) compression/distraction force and d) vertical ground reaction force during phases of LH
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Figure 7: Muscle activity during the three phases of the LH