Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a well-validated decompressive therapy option to manage ascites and variceal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension. Complications following TIPS procedures include hepatic encephalopathy, liver failure, and TIPS dysfunction. TIPS dysfunction is due to occlusion or stenosis of the TIPS shunt and can be caused by acute or chronic thrombosis. TIPS thrombosis is often treated with mechanical thrombectomy or catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy. Most cases of in-stent occlusion can be treated via a transjugular approach with recanalization or placement of additional stents. We present a case of a 72-year-old female who presented with worsening ascites 17 months after initial TIPS procedure; she was found to have a large thrombus completely occluding the TIPS stent. In our case, a combined transhepatic and transjugular approach was required for TIPS revision given the extent of well-organized clot located near the hepatic venous end of the stent, resulting from prolonged stent occlusion. This was an extremely challenging scenario with two overlapping covered stents and a bare metal stent at the hepatic venous end in the setting of chronic thrombosis and a well-organized fibrous cap. The case highlights the need for optimal initial placement of the primary TIPS shunt to avoid the need for subsequent complex interventions to maintain TIPS shunt patency.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Newcomer, Jack B.; Chishti, Emad A.; and Raissi, Driss, "Combined Transhepatic and Transjugular Approach for Mechanical Thrombectomy of Massive TIPS Thrombosis" (2022). Radiology Faculty Publications. 41.