Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Document Type

Master's Thesis


Arts and Sciences



First Advisor

Dr. Suzanne Segerstrom


From a functionalist perspective, emotions inform people of their needs and influence responses to the environment. Responses to emotion encompass more than emotion regulation strategies. Individual differences emerge from the consistent way that people cope with their emotions, called trait responses to emotion (TRE). We hypothesized approach/avoidance and control/dyscontrol would characterize the dimensional structure of TRE and that dimensions would correlate with age, gender, and early life experiences. The present study developed a multidimensional model to explore TRE from a TurkPrime sample (N = 284). Participants completed a web-based battery of surveys with demographic, early life experience, and TRE questionnaires. Multi-dimensional scaling yielded 3 dimensions: approach, dyscontrol, and emotion engagement. Older participants had higher approach and dyscontrol. Female participants had higher dyscontrol and emotion engagement. Participants with less risky early life experiences had higher approach, and participants with riskier experiences had higher emotion engagement. Mapping the relationships of TRE constructs can establish their nomological net, and relationships to demographic characteristics can identify possible protective and risk factors for TRE development.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Funding Information

This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health grant (3 R01 AG026307-12S1) from 2018-2022.