Swine production has restructured considerably in recent years with increased production on fewer farms (Key et al., 2011). Most swine production facilities manage manure in liquid form either in deep pits underneath production facilities or in lagoons adjacent to the production facilities (Key et al., 2011). This management uses water to rinse manure from the facilities, which dilutes the nutrient concentration and value of the manure. The liquid forms are applied to land through irrigation systems or by liquid manure spreaders. Liquid manure management can have some operational constraints that composting eliminates (Bernal et al., 2009). The most common issue with handling liquid manure is that the manure has diluted nutrients and it is often not economical to transport large volumes of lagoon effluent to off‐site locations. Surface spreading through an irrigator is commonly used, but wet environments can delay application. Odor can be a concern if liquid manure is surface applied and not incorporated; and although soil incorporation does reduce manure odors, they can still be a concern.

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