TEST YOUR SOIL AND SUPPLY THE SUGGESTED LIMING AND FERTILIZER MATERIALS.
A soil test is the first step to profitable small grain production. A pH of 6.0 to 6.5 is best, and nitrogen should be applied both in the fall and spring. If your small grains are part of a double cropping system the P and K requirements for both crops should be applied in the fall.
Bitzer, Morris J.; Herbek, James H.; and TeKrony, Dennis M., "Tips for Small Grain Seeding" (1971). Agronomy Notes. 127.